The revelation of the Mystery was given once Israel was judged Acts 28:28. The mystery forms the distinctive kernel of the economy of this age. But how does this relate to the foundation of the world?
Below is a slide which gives a complete (but not exhaustive - Heb 11:11 is about Sarah "conceiving" seed and is not included) concordance of "katabole":
"From the foundation of the world" relates to kindom promises, and are based on prophetical statements and Israel's hope. "Before the foundataion of the world" relates to a time when a special love existed in the trinity between the Father and Son and a plan and purpose for Christ to be the sacrificial lamb. Here are the passages
KJV John 17:24 Father, I will that they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world.
TBT John 17:24 πάτερ, οὓς δέδωκάς μοι, θέλω ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγώ, κἀκεῖνοι ὦσι μετ᾽ ἐμοῦ· ἵνα θεωρῶσι τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἐμήν, ἣν ἔδωκάς μοι, ὅτι ἠγάπησάς με πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου.
KJV 1 Peter 1:20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,
TBT 1 Peter 1:20 προεγνωσμένου μὲν πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, φανερωθέντος δὲ ἐπ᾽ ἐσχάτων τῶν χρόνων δι᾽ ὑμᾶς,
The above passages relate to Israel but NOT exclusively -- the idea of a sacrifice for sins is totally needed by all sons of Adam regardles of calling. So the above passages while in context are related to ministries to Israel the truths represented apply to us also just as justification as recorded by Paul in Romans and resting on prophetical scriptures (see Habbakuk) also find application to us.
KJV Ephesians 1:4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:
TBT Ephesians 1:4 καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ,
This is distinctive because it relates to a choice God made for a "group" post Acts 28 in a context where the doctrine is unique.